Spatial approach is a perspective or frame of analysis emphasizes the existence of space for emphasis. Eksisitensi space in the perspective of geography can be seen from the structure (spatial structure), pattern (spatial pattern), and processes (spatial processess) (Yunus, 1997).
In the context of spatial phenomena there are differences in appearance strutkur, patterns and processes. Spatial structure with respect to the elements penbentuk space. These elements can disimbulkan in three main forms, namely: (1) appearance point (point features), (2) the appearance of lines (line features), and (3) appearance of the field (area features).
The framework approach to spatial analysis starting point on the problem of the composition of the elements forming the space. The analysis was done by answering the following questions.
1. What? Space structure is that?
2. Where? Where the fabric of space Tesebut located?
3. When? When did these space structures are formed just as it was?
4. Why? Why is the fabric of space is formed like that?
5. How? How terbentukknya processes such structures?
6. Who suffers whats what and WHO benefits? How to structure
Spatial is utilized in such a manner for the benefit of mankind. Positive and negative impacts of the existence of such a space is always associated with human interests in the present and future.
Spatial patterns with respect to the distribution of elements forming the space. The phenomenon of point, line, and the area has its own position, either implicitly or explicitly in terms of spatial questionnaire was developed (Coffey, 1989). Some examples of such cluster pattern, random pattern, the regular pattern, and the linear pattern for the appearance of cluster-point visibility can be identified (Whynne-Hammond, 1985; Yunus, 1989).
Appearance questionnaire was developed area (area) can be an elongated appearance (linear / axial / ribon); appearance like a fan (fan-shape pattern), rounded appearance (rounded pattern), rectangular (rectangular pattern), appearance of the octopus (octopus shape pattern ), appearance of a star (star shape pattern), and some combination of several existing. Sixth form geography questions in advance is always included in each analysis.
Spatial process with respect to changes in the elements forming the living space fund. Therefore, analysis of spatial changes are always associated with the dimension kewaktuan (temporal dimension). In this case there must be at least two time points are used as the basis for an analysis of the phenomenon being studied.
Spatial analysis framework approach can be exemplified as follows.
".... The past is often encountered flooding and landslides. The disaster that occurred in the headwaters region Konto Pujon Malang. How to solve these problems by using a spatial approach?
Therefore we need a framework in depth study of the conditions of nature and society in the region upstream the river Konto. In the first phase need to see the structure, pattern, and spatial processes such Konto headwaters area. At this stage can be identified phenomena / objects contained in the upstream region Konto. After that, in the second stage can be done kerakteristik zoning area based on a slope. Zoning that would yield zones based on slope, such as steep, moderately steep, somewhat ramps, ramps, and flat. Following the third stage is determined using the zone for the right purposes. Zone which is used for conservation, buffer, and cultivation. Thus the error does not occur in the utilization of the space. Erosion and soil directly preventable, and along with it to make cultivation of agricultural crops in the appropriate zone.
Physical studies so it is still not enough. Characteristics of the population in the headwaters region Konto it also needs to be studied. For example, types of livelihood, level of education, Skills, and their habits. Information that can be used to develop the best area-based community. What type of plants that need to be planted, how planting, maintenance, and utilization. With this approach looks interrelation, interaction, and integration between nature and human condition in it to solve the problems of flooding and landslides.