Saturday, January 1, 2011


Skin Layer Structure of the Earth (lithosphere)
Lithosphere derived from the Greek lithos meaning rock, and sphera means the layer of the lithosphere of the earth's crust outside and consists of rocks with an average thickness of 1200 km.

You need to understand that rock is not a hard thing just a stone in their daily lives, but also in the form of clay, volcanic ash, sand, gravel and so forth.
Thick uneven crust, the crust in the continent or mainland thicker than beneath oceans.

Earth is composed of several layers, namely:

a.Barisfer the core layer of the earth which is a solid material composed of layers of nife (niccolum = ferum nickel and iron) radius barisfer + - 3470 km.

b.Lapisan between the layers contained over 1700 km thick nife. This layer is also called asthenosfer mautle / mautel), a high-temperature liquid and incandescent. 5 gr/cm3 density.

c.Lithosfer the outermost layer located over 1200km thick layer between the average density of 2.8 gram/cm3. 
Structure of hte oceanic and continental lithosphere
Image: Lithospheric Structure. LEFT Indicates oceanic lithosphere part; The right side shows the continental lithosphere. Redrawn by Keary and Vine (1996)

Lithosphere is also called the Earth's crust consists of two parts:

1.Lapisan unfortunate that the earth crust which is composed of silicon and aluminum metal, its compounds in the form of SiO 2 and Al 2 O3.
In pesky layer (silicon and aluminum), among others, there are sedimentary rocks, granite andesite metamor rock types, and other rocks found on the continent.

Pesky layer called the crust is too dense and scattered stones on average 35km.

The Earth's crust is divided into two parts:

- The crust of continents: a solid that consists of granite rocks at the top and basaltic igneous rocks at the bottom. This is a continental crust.
- The crust of the ocean: a solid body consisting of sediment in the sea at the top, then underneath rocks of volcanic rocks and the bottom is composed of igneous rock gabbro and peridolit. It occupies the bottom of the ocean crust

2.Lapisan sima (silicon magnesium) that the earth crust is composed of silicon metal and magnesium metal in compound form O2 and Mg Si O layer has a greater density than the layer of bad luck because it contains iron and magnesium are minerals magnesium and ferro basaltic rocks. The layer is a material having the character of elastic and mepunyai average thickness of 65 km.
  Note the cross-sectional images of the earth the following:

1. Rock-forming lithosphere

a.Batuan frozen

b.Batuan sediment

Metamorphic c.Batuan

All the rocks in the beginning of the magma
Magma out of the earth's surface, among others, through the peak of the volcano. The volcano is on the mainland some are in the ocean. Magma that has reached the earth's surface would freeze. Magma which then froze into igneous rock. Igneous rock face of the earth for thousands of years to decompose destroyed during heat exposure, rain, and the activities of plants and animals.

Furthermore, the rock debris is caught by water, wind or animal to another place for deposited. Crushed rock called sedimentary rocks deposited or sedimentary rocks. Whether or frozen sedimentary rocks can change shape in a very long time because of changes in temperature and pressure. Deformed rock is called metamorphic rocks or metamorphic rocks.

To better understand the types of rocks note the following descriptions:

Frozen a.Batuan
There are two kinds of igneous rock, the igneous rocks in (eg
granite), and igneous rock out (eg andesite stone.)

For accuracy Knowing rock rock types should be conducted laboratory tests using a microscope to see the crystalline form batuanya.
The types of igneous rocks

b.Batuan sediment
There are several kinds of sedimentary rocks, the clastic sedimentary rocks, sediments and sedimentary organic chemistry. Clastic sediments in the form of a mixture of crushed igneous rock, such as breccia, conglomerate and sandstone. Sediment deposition from a chemical form of dissolution, for example kapurdan jade stone. Sediment deposits remaining residual organic form of animals and marine plants such as coral limestone and sedimentary rock types

c.Batuan metamorphic (metamorphic rocks)
Metamorphic rocks or metamorphic rocks which were deformed. Examples of lime (calcite) turned into marble, or quartz into quartzite rock types of metamorphic rocks

2. Utilization of the lithosphere
Earth's lithosphere is the part that directly affect life and memiluki tremendous benefit for life on earth. Upper lithosphere is a living place for humans, animals and plants. Human activity in the upper lithosphere.
Furthermore, the lower lithosphere contain minerals that are beneficial to humans. Minerals or quarry materials originating from the bottom of the lithosphere including oil and gas, gold, coal, iron, nickel and tin.

Seeing the benefits of such a large Litthosfer the sepantasnyalah we are always grateful to God Almighty.

3. Landform as a result of volcanism and diatropisme.
Why form the earth's surface is uneven. This is due to influence from outside the earth and the earth itself.

The influence of the earth in the form of a huge power so as to form a diverse planet. Power comes from within the earth's energy is called endogenous. Workers from outside the earth's energy is called exogenous. Power exogenous destructive form of the earth's surface is built upon endogenous energy.

Power endogenous includes tektonisme, volcanism and seisme, whereas exogenous force include erosion and sedimentation.
Power exogenous include weathering (weathering) and erosion (erosion).

1.Gejala volcanism.
Volcanism of events in connection with the rising magma from the bowels of the earth.
Magma is a mixture of rocks in a liquid state, as well as very hot clay that is in the bowels of the earth. Magmatic activity caused by high temperature magma and the amount of gas contained in it so it can happen the cracks and shifting plates bumi.Magma skin to form solid and liquid gas.

The process of volcanism is influenced by magma activity that infiltrated the lithosphere (crust). If the magma intrusion was limited to the inner skin of the earth is called magma intrusion. While the intrusion of magma to come out into the earth's surface is called magma extrusion. Up here if you can understand. if you already understand let's follow the subsequent explanation!

1.1Intrusi magma
magma intrusion is the event menyusupnya magma between the layers of rocks, but did not reach the earth's surface. Magma intrusion can be divided into four, namely:

a) Intrusion flat (or plate sill intrusion), the magma seeping between two rock layers, horizontal and parallel with the rock layers.

b) Lakolit, namely the invading magma between layers of earth on top. Shaped like a convex lens or a muffin.

c) The Gang (dike), which is the result of intrusion of magma rock that infiltrated and frozen on the sidelines between the folds (excavation).

d) Diaterma is a hole (pipe) between the magma chamber and the volcano crater shaped like elongated cylinders.

1.2Ekstrusi magma
Magma is extruded magma intrusion event to exit the earth's surface and form volcanoes. This occurs when gas pressure is strong enough and there are cracks in the crust. Extrusion of magma can differentiate Being:

a) The linear eruption, the magma out through cracks in the skin of the earth, berbentukKerucut volcano.

b) central eruption, the magma that comes out through a hole the earth's surface and form a mountain that is located separately.

c) the eruption area, the magma that melted on the surface of the earth because the location magma is very close to the earth's surface, forming volcanic crater which is very broad.

Mount is a bulge in the earth's crust consists of slopes and peaks.

The series of mountains forming the mountains. Mountains and highlands are formed because of the endogenous power.
If a place on the surface of the earth has ever or is still out of volcanic magma is formed.

Based on the type of volcanic eruption can be divided into three namely:

a) or strato volcano cone.
Most volcanoes in the world is a volcanic cone. The eruption at the volcano eruption cone including kecil.letusan can be a hot molten rock and liquid. Frequent cause a melt-coated slopes lapis.Oleh therefore, this volcano called strato volcanoes. Most of the volcanoes in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, including volcanic cones.

b) maar volcano.
Maar volcano shapes such as dry lake. Maar volcano types such as dry lake. Maar volcano type is not much. This volcano was formed because there are large eruptions that form a large hole on top of which is called the crater. Maar volcano has a funnel. For example Mount Lamongan East Java with Klakah crater.

c) shield volcano
In Indonesia there is no shield-shaped mountain. Shield volcanoes of Hawaii Loa Maona example, the United States. Shield volcanoes occur because of liquid magma came out with low pressure almost without eruption. Terbantuk mountain slopes to be very gentle.

In general the form of a volcano in Indonesia is a strato (cone). The volcano that never erupted, culminating generally flat. Therefore, the Indonesian volcano erupts frequently happened events. Magma that comes out to the surface of the earth there is a solid liquid and gas. Material released by the volcano, among others:

1) Eflata (solid material) in the form lapili, gravel, sand and dust.

2) Lava and lava, a liquid material.

3) Eksalasi (gas) form of sulfur nitrogen and acid gases.

Characteristic features of a volcano that will erupt, among others:

1) The temperature in the vicinity of the mountain ride.

2) form the dry spring

3) Frequently issued a thundering voice, sometimes accompanied by vibration (earthquake)

4) Plants wilt around the mountain, and

5) Animals migrate around the mountain.

These signs indicate that magma intrusion pressed into the surface, when the pressure is strong enough, what happens is volcanic eruptions. After the eruption of Mount had experienced a break, but volcanic activity is still ongoing, so that one day may issue an active signs of returning. Volcanic events contained in the volcano after the eruption (post-volcanic), among others:

1) the presence of H 2 S gas source, H2O, and CO2.

2) Source of hot water or geysers.

The source of this gas is very dangerous for life. It can even be deadly for instance that occurred in the Crater Sinila (Dieng) as well as dangerous, symptoms of post-volcanic useful also for human life. even can also be used as a tourist attraction, for example hot water and the crater of a volcano.

Lake volcanic
After Mount Merapi erupted over a watertight kepundannya can accommodate water and set up a lake. Volcanic lake is the lake formed by volcanic eruption that destroyed part of a strong peak, and then formed a large basin, the basin holds the water and form lakes.

Examples of volcanic lakes, among others: the lake on the mountain pucak Lokon in North Sulawesi and Flores Lake in Flores.

The benefits and disadvantages of volcanism
Volcanic events in addition to providing benefits also can cause loss of property or life. The advantage that we get after volcanism took place among others:

1) attractions in the form of craters (crater of Mount Bromo), hot springs gushing (Yellowstone in the United States, and Pelabuhan Ratu in Cisolok), mineral water sources (Maribaya in West Java and Central Java Baturaden)

2) The source of geothermal energy for example in Kamojang, West Java.

3) Soil fertility will be obtained after a few years later.

Losses that we experience is primarily in the form of lives and property, because:

1) which can ditimbulkanya Earthquakes can damage buildings.

2) Forest fires caused lava flows.

3) scattered ash is very thick and extends to damage the health and pollute the existing facilities.

2.Bentuk face of the earth due diatropisme
Diatropisme is the process of reshaping the earth's crust formation of mountains, valleys, folds creases and cracks cracks. The process of forming the valley of the earth's crust because of tectonic energy.

Tektonisme is the power that comes from the skin of the earth that cause changes in the surface layer of the earth, both horizontally and vertically. Tectonic power is power that comes from within the Earth that causes motion up and down the earth's crust. The motion includes the motion and the motion epirogenetik orogenetik. (Orogenesa and epiro genesis).

Orogenetik motion is motion that can cause cracks due to bending fracture in the earth's movement is large and covers a narrow area and lasted for a short time.

a) folds, namely the layer of earth movement that is not too big and lasted for a long time, causing the earth's crust wrinkled or folded, wrinkles or folds of the earth which later became the mountains. The back folds called antliklinal, valley area (sinklinal) a very broad named geosinklinal, there are several folds, the folds upright tilt, fall, hang, isoklin and petals.

a. upright folds d. folds hang
b. oblique folds e. crease isoklin
c. folds fall f. sheath folds

Fault is movement in the strata is very large and takes place a in a very fast, thus causing the earth's crust cracked or broken. The face of the earth is experiencing a fault such as graben and horst. Horst is the land rises, occur in the event of appointment. Graben is ground down, occurs when a block of rock has decreased.
b) Motion epirogenetic the motion which could cause the earth's surface as decreased or increased, due to the slow movement of the earth and cover large areas epirogenetik motion to differentiate into two, namely the movement of genetic epiro positive and negative genetic epiro motion.

1.) Positive epirogenetic Motion is the movement of the earth surface down and as if sea levels rise. For example, downs islands in eastern Indonesia (Maluku Islands and islands of Objects.

2.) Motion epirogenetic negative is the surface of the earth's movement as if the earth's surface to rise and it was as though the water level down. For example, increasing the Colorado plateau. To be more clear, look at the picture below.

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