Water cycle or hydrologic cycle is the circulation of water that never stops from the atmosphere to the earth and back into the atmosphere through condensation, precipitation, evaporation and transpiration.
Warm sea water by sunlight is the key process of the hydrologic cycle that runs continuously. Berevaporasi water, then fall as precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, sleet and snow (sleet)
A. Elements of Hydrological Cycle
The journey to the earth some precipitation may berevaporasi back to top or fell in the later intercepted by plants before it reaches the ground. After reaching land, the hydrologic cycle continues to move continuously in three different ways:
Evaporation / transpiration - water of the sea, on land, in rivers, in plants, and so forth. Then it will evaporate into the air (atmosphere) and then will be a cloud. In the state of saturated water vapor (clouds) will go to spots which in turn would decrease water (precipitation) in the form of rain, snow and ice.
Infiltration / percolation into the soil is water that moves into the soil through cracks and pores of soil and rock into groundwater. Water can move due to capillary action or water can move vertically or horizontally below the soil surface until the water re-entering the surface water system.
Surface water is water moving over the soil surface close to main stream and lake, the more gently sloping land and fewer and fewer of the pores of the soil, the greater the surface flow. The flow of the soil surface can be seen usually in urban areas. The rivers join each other and form a major river that carries all the surface water around the watershed to the sea.
Surface water, either flowing or stagnant (lakes, reservoirs, swamps), and partly below the surface water will be collected and flow to form the river and ended at the sea. The process of water traveling in the mainland occurred in the hydrological cycle components that form the watershed system (DAS). The amount of water on earth as a whole is relatively fixed, the change is the form and place
Macam-Macam and Hydrological Cycle Process Stages
a. Short Cycle / Small Cycle 1. Sea water evaporates into vapor gas in the sun 2. Occurred condensation and cloud formation 3. Rain at sea level
b. Medium Cycle 1. Sea water evaporates into vapor gas in the sun 2. Condensation occurs 3. Steam moves by wind to land 4. Cloud formation 5. Rain on the surface of land 6. Water flows in the river to the sea again
c. Cycle Length / Great Cycle 1. Sea water evaporates into vapor gas in the sun 2. Sublimation of water vapor has 3. Formation of clouds containing ice crystals 4. Clouds moving by the wind to land 5. Cloud formation 6. Snow 7. Formation of glaciers 8. Glacier melt streams 9. Water flows in the river to the ground and then into the sea
B. Types of Waters
1. River River waters in which the water is continuously flowing in a certain direction, comes from ground water, rain water, and / or surface water which eventually empties into the sea or the wide open waters. River death, swampy waters, canals and man-made irrigation channels belong to the category sungai.Ada various types of rivers. Based on the source of the river water was divided into three kinds: rainy river, glacier rivers and streams mixes.
Rainy River, is the river where the water comes from rain water or spring water. Examples are the rivers that exist in Java and Nusa Tenggara.
Glacier River, is the river where the water comes from melting ice. Examples of river where the water is really pure comes from melting ice only (ansich) is virtually absent, but on the upstream side of the river Ganges in India (who tipped in the Peg. Himalayas) and the upstream river Phein in Germany (who tipped in the Alps) can be regarded as examples of this type of river.
Mixed River, is the river where the water comes from melting ice (glaciers), of rain, and from the fountain. Examples of this type are rivers and streams Digul Mamberamo river in Papua (Irian Jaya).
2. Lake The lake is a vast pool of water with high and fluctuating water surface area is small, the depth of shallow or very deep, have or not have a river that flows into or out of the waters, naturally formed and terisoiasi from the sea. Situ and pool belonging to the category of the lake.
Based on the formation, can be divided into several types, as follows
a. Tectonic lakes are lakes that formed an endogenous force that comes from tectonic movements. For example Tondano Lake and Lake Towuti in Sulawesi.
b. Volcanic lakes, namely the former crater lake volcano crater. For example Kelud Crater Lake, Mount Batur, Mount Galunggung and so forth.
c. Lake volcano-tectonic lake formed by the volcanic and tectonic processes. This is caused because fracture or depression in the earth's surface after the eruption.
d. Lake Dissolution (solusional) is the lake that formed in the shape of negative land or under the earth's average surface due to dissolution.
e. Horseshoe lake (oxbow lake) formed by the cutting process and abandoned meanders naturally flow is so-called dead time.
3. Reservoir Reservoir is a puddle of water formed by damming the river flow by humans.
4. Swamp Swamp is a large enough water contained in the lowlands with water from rain water, sea water and / or related or unrelated to the river, is relatively not deep, or plant-based mud and rotting, there are many good vegetation and sticking float or sink .
Based on the formation process, swamp divided into several types:
a. Coastal Swamp This swamp pobud influenced by tidal sea water
b. Swamp Suburbs Swamp edges along the river due to frequent overflow of river water
c. Eternal Swamp Swamps where the water is trapped in a basin and has no release to the lau. Swamp water is acid and reddish in color.
5. Glacier Glacier by Katili (in Tanudidjaja) is the granular ice formed by the accumulation of snow and moves toward the bottom ak
ibat gravity, with a yawn or meleleh.salju derived from water vapor which freezes in cold regions at high latitudes and latitudes in winter (winter). Pile of ice in the area will be down the slopes of the mountains slopes, called glaciers.
C. Watershed DAS is a plot of land that holds water hu jan and running it into the moat, the river and finally empties into the lake or sea. The term is also commonly used for the watershed is a catchment area (DTA) or a catchment or watershed. Watershed boundary is the back hills that divide the watershed with other watershed.
|Schematic drawings of a river basin (DAS).|
Water flows from a high place to place along the slopes of the lower boundary of a watershed is a ridge around a Sunga i. Watershed boundary is an imaginary line that can not be seen, but can be depicted on the map.
Watershed boundary is mostly not the same as administrative boundaries. As a result of a watershed could be at more than one administrative region. There is a watershed that covers the territory of several countries (eg the Mekong river basin), some ah wilay districts (eg DAS Brantas), or only in a part of the district.
Micro-or micro-watershed storage (micro catchment) is a basin on the landscape in which the water flowed in a ditch. The trench is likely to have flow before and after the rain come down (intermittent flow) or there is also a flow of water throughout the year (perennial flow). A watershed that is part of a larger watershed-called sub-watershed which is the catchment area of the creek.
Watershed can be divided into three components, namely: the upper, middle and downstream. Ecosystem is the upstream part of the main water catchment areas and flow regulator. Ecosystem center as a regional distributor and regulator of water, whereas downstream ecosystems are water users. The relationship between these ecosystems makes watershed as a hydrological unit. In the integrated watershed various factors that can lead to the preservation or degradation depending on how a managed watershed.
In the mountains, in the highlands and lowlands to the beach found the climate, geology, hydrology, soil and vegetation interact to build the ecosystem. Every ecosystem in the watershed has Biot ik and abiotic components that interact with each other. Understanding a watershed means learning about all the natural processes that occur within the limits of a watershed.
A healthy watershed can provide:
· Nutrient for plants · Source of food for humans and animals · Air healthy drink for humans and other creatures · Place a variety of human and animal activity
Some natural processes in the watershed could provide beneficial effects to some catchment areas but at the same time can hurt the other. Flooding on the one hand provide additional land in the flood plain but for the negative impacts to humans and other life.
THE TYPES OF FLOW PATTERN
· Is like a branching dendritic tree, branching irregularly with varying directions and angles. Developing in a homogeneous rock and uncontrolled by the structure, generally in sedimentary rock with horizontal bedding planes, or on crystalline igneous rock and homogenous.
· Parallel is the main tributary parallel or nearly parallel to each other, results in major rivers with acute angle or directly empties into the sea. Flourishing in lerengyang controlled by structure (folds monoklinal, isoklinal, the fault parallel to each other with a short space) or near the beach.
Radial or menjari, this type dibedaka n into two namely:
Centrifugal radial flow pattern that spreads are leaving the center. This flow pattern found in cone-shaped mountain regions.
Centrifugal Radial River.
Is the centripetal radial flow pattern that accumulate toward the center. This pattern is found in the basin (basin).
Trellis is branching creeks and main river almost perpendicular, main rivers parallel or nearly parallel. Sedimentary rocks developed in te rlipat or terungkit with litologiyang alternating between a soft and resistant.
Annular circular is the main river with tributaries that form an angle almost perpendicular. Flourishing in the dome with a rock that alternate between soft and hard.
Centripetal is a river that flows converge from different directions. Flourishing in the caldera, characters, or other enclosed basin.
Multibasinal is branching river does not lead to the main river, but lost to the bottom surface. Developing on karst topography.
Pinate is the flow pattern in which the estuaries tributaries forming acute angle.