Paradigm Development Period-Traditional paradigm
In the traditional paradigm emerged 3 kinds of paradigm in the study of geography. The outline begins before the 1960's, among others:
1. Exploration Paradigm
2. The paradigm of environmentalism
3. Regionalism Paradigm
Each of these paradigms indicate their properties themselves and their products which is a reflection of the development of a reflection of the demands of life as well as technology development and analysis of existing research.
a. Paradigm exploration
Shows the process of early development of the "geographical thought" who had known her file. Exploration paradigm of power is seen from the mapping-mapping efforts, drawing-drawing new places that have not been widely known and gathering new facts that have not been widely known and collection of new places that have not been widely known and collection of basic facts related with new areas. From this activity then appeared the writings or images, these maps are very interesting new areas and foster a strong motivation for researchers to further refine existing products, either written or maps.
Discoveries of new areas that were previously not known by many western society began to appear at that time. The nature of the products produced in the form of descriptive and classification of new areas along with the facts of the field. One thing that is striking is the very limited theoretical background underlying the studies conducted. This is why there are some who think that to describe the development of "geographical thought" or thoughts / ideas in geography as a simple description of what is known and resulting from the arrangement (ordering) and classification (classification) data is still very simple.
b. The paradigm of environmentalism
This paradigm emerged as a further development of previous methods. The importance of serving a more accurate and detail have been demanding for researchers in this period to make measurements more profound about the elements of the physical environment in which human life takes place. This paradigm is seen sticking out in the late nineteenth century, where opinions about the role of "physical environment" of the patterns of human activity on the surface of the earth reverberate so loudly (geographical determinism). In fact, until the mid-twentieth century alone, these ideas still feel echoes.
Forms morphometric analysis and causal analysis started much done. In some ways "morphometric analysis" at this early stage is rooted in the "cognitive description" where the development of geometric systems, spatial and coordinates the work has resulted in a systematization and classification of data is more complete, accurate than previous techniques.
Appears newtwork analysis to study the patterns and forms of the city for example, is one example and then up to certain limits can be used to make predictions (prediction models) and simulation. For this, the work of Walter Christaller (1993) is a good example. Attempts to explain certain phenomena terkondisinya, especially "human phenomenon" by elements of the physical environment began to work better and systematic. Roots than the background analysis of the relationship between humans and the natural environment bermulai here.
Development, then it appears that analysis of the relationship between humans and the natural environment has led to other forms within the human place in the ecosystem. Humans are no longer fully didekte by the natural environment, but humans have a greater role in determining the forms of its activities in the Earth's surface (geographical possibilism and probabilism).
c. Regionalism Paradigm
The latest development from the period of the traditional paradigm is the paradigm of Regionalism. Here appears the element of "fact finding tradition of exploration" on one side and the effort led to synthesis of human relationships and the environment on the other hand appears to coloring this paradigm. The concepts emerging regions as the basis for a more detailed introduction to space.
Region in terms of type (formal and functional regions) region in terms of their hierarchy (the 1st order, the 2nd order, the3rd orders, etc. Regions) and the region in terms of categories (single topic, duoble topic, combine topic, multiple topics , Total, regions) are some examples of the concepts that emerged in line with the development paradigm of regionalism is, in assisting the analysis. Besides, "temporal analysis" as one form of "causal analysis" also develops during this period (Rostow, 1960; Harvey, 1969).