Each discipline has an object that becomes the field of study.
Object fields in the form of objects and object matrial formal. Material objects relating to the substance of the material under study, while the formal object associated with the approach (perspective) that are used in analyzing the substance (material object) is.
In the material objects, among which one field of science with another discipline may have substantially the same object or nearly sama.Obyek material is a phenomenon of geography geosphere, including the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and antroposfer. Object materal was also a field of study for other disciplines, such as geology, hydrology, biology, physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. For example, soil or rock material objects. The object is also a field study of geology, agronomy, physics, and chemistry.
Therefore, to distinguish one discipline to another discipline that can be done by examining its formal object. Geography in the form of a formal object approach (perspective) that is used in understanding the material objects. In the context of geography that have a specific approach that differentiates it from other sciences. Specific approach is known as spatial approach (spatial approach). In addition to these spatial approach in geography also recognized the existence of kelingkungan approach (ecological approach), and complex approach to the region (complex regional approach).