Friday, May 2, 2008

Causes of Degradation

Causes of Degradation

The occurrence of land degradation and loss of hydrological functions of watersheds is likely due to several factors.
First, the use and allocation of land to deviate from the Spatial Plan or Regional Spatial Plan. For example, areas designated as protected forest converted to agriculture, forests are converted into housing production, cultivation of agricultural land converted into residential or industrial, and so forth.
Both land use in the watershed is not in accordance with land capability. Much land should only to nature reserves, but has already processed into agriculture, or land which is suitable only for forests become agricultural lands, even settlement. Many slope land more than 30 percent even 45 percent still used as intensive agriculture or a settlement.Third, the treatment of land in the watershed do not meet the conditions required by the land or do not meet the rules of conservation of soil, and soil and water conservation techniques are applied is inadequate. Any use of land (forest, agriculture, industry, settlement) shall be in accordance with the requirements, namely implementing soil and water conservation techniques are adequate. Adequate conservation techniques in a field of land may not be adequate in another land. Selection of appropriate conservation techniques in an area of ​​land is affected by bio-physical factors (soil, topography, land use, rainfall / climate) the relevant land. Type of soil and water conservation techniques that are available to be selected and applied from very mild to severe, among others, the use of mulch, contour planting, contour processing, conservation tillage (no tillage, minimum tillage), planting spacing , planting in strips (strip cropping), and planting sequence (rotation).
Fourth, the absence of legislation Soil and Water Conservation that requires people applying the soil and water conservation techniques are adequate in each land use. In the absence of this law so the people do not feel obliged to carry out soil and water conservation techniques, so that land degradation continues to increase.
The fifth factor, the seriousness of inadequate government to prevent land degradation. This is indicated from the lack of clarity about land degradation prevention program or the application of soil and water conservation techniques in each type of land use. Department related to land use, such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Public Works, and Ministry of Home Affairs, less prioritize land degradation prevention programs and the application of soil and water conservation technologies. This is also indicated in the preliminary draft of the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJPN) from 2005 to 2025. In the preliminary draft RPJPN not indicated that the prevention of land degradation as an important priority. If this goes on the interest of the younger generation to learn and explore the prevention of degradation of land resources will fade which in turn can result in no more people who know technology, prevention of land degradation. If this happens then the disastrous flooding, as experienced by the people of Indonesia recently, will be more frequent.
To prevent and mitigate land degradation, the following strategies should be a priority. First, review the national spatial planning, regional, and local governments to be based on land capability. Second, the spatial distortion that is based on land capability should be dealt with firmly. Third, all land resources should be classified based on their ability. Fourth, land use must be based on land capability. Fifth, soil and water conservation technologies are adequate to be applied in any type of land use. Sixth, the preparation of soil and water conservation laws have to be accelerated. Seventh, related departments should be programmed prevention of land degradation as a priority. Eighth, the government needs to include land degradation prevention material / application of soil and water conservation technologies in the educational curriculum.
Flooding is a natural consequence of the change, it is because now the effects of global warming has been very pronounced. Therefore musi-season is now uncertain, it is in proof with rainfall that is not necessarily well. It is a cause of flooding due to rainfall is very high. In addition, the construction or the tidah tatakota that cause that is not good drainage and cause flooding.
Pennyebab others also have it in because of the watershed that are not in care by the relevant agencies should maintain. Masyarakatpun to intervene in this case, garbage disposal on DASpun can create flooding. Therefore let us keep all the things yng can harm us.

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